Medical Advisory Board Members

+ DR. GORDON COHEN | 98point6 Co-founder, Past Division Chief of Cardiothoracic Surgery at UCSF and Seattle Children's

Up until March 2016, Gordon Cohen, MD, PhD was Professor and Vice-Chair of Surgery, the Julien I.E. Hoffman Endowed Chair of Cardiac Surgery, and the Chief of the Division of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine. In addition, Dr. Cohen was the Chief of Strategic Program Development for the UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital. Prior to his tenure at UCSF, Dr. Cohen was Chief of the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Surgical Director of the cardiac transplant program at Seattle Children's Hospital. He was also co-Director of Seattle Children's Heart Center. He was a Professor in the Department of Surgery and was the Associate Division Chief of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the University of Washington. Prior to that, Dr. Cohen was a Cardiothoracic Surgeon Consultant at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London and a Senior Lecturer at the University College London.

Dr. Cohen's clinical interests include complex neonatal repairs, pediatric heart, heart-lung and lung transplantation, mechanical cardiac assist, and heart failure. Dr. Cohen received his MD from Tulane University School of Medicine and earned a PhD in pharmacology from UCLA in 1996. His PhD advisor, Dr. Louis Ignarro, received the Nobel Prize in 1998. Dr. Cohen received his MBA from the University of Tennessee School of Business. He completed residencies in cardiothoracic surgery at the University of Washington School of Medicine and in general surgery at UCLA Medical Center. Dr. Cohen is a Fellow of the American College of Surgeons, a member of the highly prestigious American Surgical Association, as well as numerous other professional societies. Highly respected by his peers, Dr. Cohen was named to the list of the US News & World Report "Top Doctors", which denotes the top one percent of physicians in the nation practicing a given specialty.

+ DR. JONATHAN AVIV | Author, Inventor, Past Professor & Division Chief ENT, Columbia University

Jonathan Aviv, MD, FACS is the Clinical Director of the Voice and Swallowing Center™‚ a division of ENT and Allergy Associates, LLP (ENTA) and author of the health and wellness book designed for non-medical professionals called Killing Me Softly From Inside. Prior to ENT, he was at Columbia University‚ where he served as Professor of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery‚ Director‚ Division of Laryngology and Medical Director‚ Voice and Swallowing Center at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Among his many substantive credentials‚ he is the inventor and developer of the endoscopic air-pulse laryngeal sensory testing technology known as FEESST (Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing with Sensory Testing) and a pioneer in the use of unsedated upper endoscopy known as Transnasal Esophagoscopy (TNE). He is a graduate of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, and completed both internship in General Surgery and residency in Otolaryngology at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. He also added a Fellowship at Mount Sinai in Microvascular Head and Neck Reconstruction.

Dr. Aviv was Chairman of the Speech‚ Voice and Swallowing Disorders Committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery‚ the Technical Advisor to the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research branch of the Department of Health and Human Services regarding swallowing problems in the elderly and former President of both the American Broncho-Esophagological Association (ABEA) and The New York Laryngological Society. Dr. Aviv has been in New York magazine’s “Best Doctors” 1998-2013, “Best Doctors in America” 2004-2013, Who’s Who in America, Who’s Who in Medicine and Healthcare, and Who’s Who in Science and Engineering. Dr. Aviv has written a blog for The Dr. Oz Show website and has been featured in press articles in the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. He has also appeared on Good Morning America, The Dr. Oz Show, CNN, Inside Edition, The Better Show, Bloomberg Television, and The Discovery Channel.

+ DR. FRED AZAR | Past President, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgery

Frederick M. Azar, MD is an orthopedic surgeon specializing in sports medicine in Memphis, Tennessee. He is chief-of-staff at the Campbell Clinic, as well as a professor and director of the sports medicine fellowship program in the University of Tennessee-Campbell Clinic Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering. He was also director of that department’s residency program for 10 years. Dr. Azar is the team physician for the NBA Memphis Grizzlies and was selected as the 2012 Team Physician of the Year by the athletic trainers from all 30 NBA teams. He also serves as a team physician for the University of Memphis, Christian Brothers University, and Christian Brothers High School sports teams.

After earning his medical degree from Tulane University School of Medicine, Dr. Azar completed a residency in orthopedic surgery at the University of Tennessee-Campbell Clinic and a fellowship in sports medicine at the American Sports Medicine Institute in Birmingham, Alabama. He was also an American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) Traveling Fellow and a graduate of the inaugural class of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) Leadership Fellows Program.

For more than 20 years, Dr. Azar has been an active volunteer in the AAOS, where he served as president, treasurer, and member-at-large. He is also active in other national and international groups and professional societies, including the American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM), the Arthroscopy Association of North America (AANA), and the American Orthopedic Association (AOA). He is the current secretary-treasurer of the NBA Team Physicians Association.

Dr. Azar has authored and edited numerous peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and other publications. He is a co-editor of Campbell’s Operative Orthopedics, 13th Edition, and Campbell’s Core Orthopedic Procedures. He serves on the editorial board of the American Journal of Sports Medicine. An active participant in a number of community philanthropic organizations, Dr. Azar serves on the Board of Directors of ALSAC/St. Jude Children’s Hospital.

+ DR. REGINA BENJAMIN | 18th Surgeon General of the United States of America

Regina M. Benjamin, MD was the 18th Surgeon General of the United States. As America’s Doctor, she provided the public with the best scientific information available on how to improve their health and the health of the nation. She also oversaw the operational command of 6,500 uniformed public health officers who serve in locations around the world to promote and protect the health of the American people. In addition, she served as chair of the National Prevention Council.

From her early days as the founder of a rural health clinic in Alabama, which she kept in operation despite damage and destruction inflicted by hurricanes Georges (1998) and Katrina (2005), and a devastating fire (2006), to her leadership role in the worldwide advancement of preventive health care, Dr. Benjamin has forged a career that has been recognized by a broad spectrum of organizations and publications.

Dr. Benjamin has a BS in chemistry from Xavier University in New Orleans, an MD from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and an MBA from Tulane University. She attended Morehouse School of Medicine and completed her family medicine residency in Macon, GA. Dr. Benjamin is the recipient of 22 honorary degrees.

Dr. Benjamin is former associate dean for Rural Health at the University of South Alabama College of Medicine and past chair of the Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States. In 1995, she was the first physician under age 40 and the first African-American woman to be elected to the American Medical Association Board of Trustees. She served as president of the American Medical Association Education and Research Foundation and chair of the AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. In 2002, she became the first African-American female president of a state medical society in the United States when she assumed leadership of the Medical Association State of Alabama.

Dr. Benjamin is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the health arm of the National Academy of Sciences, which was chartered under President Abraham Lincoln in 1863. She is also a fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians. She was chosen as a Kellogg National Fellow and a Rockefeller Next Generation Leader. Past board memberships include the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, Catholic Health Association, and Morehouse School of Medicine.

TIME magazine named Dr. Benjamin one of the “Nation’s 50 Future Leaders Age 40 and Under” and she was featured in the 1995 New York Times article, “Angel in a White Coat.” She was on the December 1999 cover of Clarity magazine, featured in the 2002 People magazine article, "Always on Call,” and featured on the January 2003 cover of Reader’s Digest as one of the national publication’s "Everyday Heroes." ABC’s World News Tonight with Peter Jennings named Dr. Benjamin “Person of the Week” and CBS This Morning named her “Woman of the Year.”

In 1998, Dr. Benjamin was the United States recipient of the Nelson Mandela Award for Health and Human Rights. She received the 2000 National Caring Award (inspired by Mother Teresa) and was recognized with the Papal Honor Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice from Pope Benedict XVI. In 2008, she was honored with a MacArthur Genius Award Fellowship. In 2011, Dr. Benjamin became the recipient of the Chairman’s Award during the worldwide broadcast of the 42nd NAACP Image Awards. In May 2013, Reader’s Digest ranked her #22 of the “100 Most Trusted People in America.”

+ DR. GAYATRI DEVI | Neurologist and Consultant to NFL on Concussion Protocol

Gayatri Devi, MD is a Clinical Associate Professor at New York University School of Medicine, and an Attending Physician at Lenox Hill Hospital. She is a board certified neurologist, with additional board certifications in Pain Medicine, Psychiatry, and Behavioral Neurology. She is an elected fellow of the American College of Physicians and of the American Academy of Neurology. Dr. Devi has specialized in the early diagnosis and treatment of memory disorders related to aging and menopause for over 20 years.

Dr. Devi completed her training at SUNY Downstate, serving as Chief Resident of Neurology. She then became a Behavioral Neurology Fellow at Columbia University, after which she was an Assistant Professor at SUNY Stony Brook and Director of the Long Island Alzheimer's Disease Center. Dr. Devi returned to Columbia as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Neurology and became Director of Memory Disorders at the Center for Women's Health at Columbia Presbyterian-Eastside. She established New York Memory and Healthy Aging Services in 1999.

Dr. Devi has over 50 publications in peer-reviewed journals on the topic of memory loss. She has presented at national and international conferences, including the annual meetings of the American Neurological Association, the European Federation of Neurologic Sciences, and the North American and European Menopause Societies. Her current research focus is the use of brain stimulation to treat Alzheimer's and other memory and cognitive disorders. Dr. Devi serves as consultant to the New York State Committee for Physician's Health, assessing physicians on behalf of the CPH for cognitive and neurologic deficits. She also serves as a neurologic consultant to the NFL in the assessment of players with concussions and other sports-related injuries.

She has discussed memory disorders on the BBC, NPR, CBS, and Reuters, as well as the Wall Street Journal, and TIME. She is President of the not-for-profit National Council on Women's Health, and serves on the board of the Partnership for Gender Specific Medicine at Columbia University. Dr. Devi was elected president of the American Medical Woman's Association (AMWA) for the 2012-2013 term and established the Sex Trafficking Task Force at AMWA. She is proud to be a member of the NYC Parks Enforcement Patrol Mounted Auxiliary Unit. She has been chosen as a Super Doctor for many years, a peer-reviewed selection of the top five percent of New York City neurologists.

She is the author of Estrogen, Memory and Menopause (Alphasigma Press; 2000), What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Alzheimer's Disease (Time Warner Books; 2004), and A Calm Brain (Penguin Books; 2012).

+ DR. KIMBERLY HARMON | Past President, American Society of Sports Medicine

Kimberly G. Harmon, MD is board-certified in family practice and has a Certificate of Added Qualification in Sports Medicine. She is the director of the University of Washington (UW) Primary Care Sports Medicine fellowship and is a Professor in the Department of Family Medicine and the Department of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine. Dr. Harmon is the sports medicine section chief and practices at the UW Sports Medicine Center at Husky Stadium. She is the associate head team physician and the head team physician for Husky football. She is a past president of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (2009-2010) and is currently on their Foundation Board.

Dr. Harmon is also on the Medical Advisory Board for the NBA Players Association and on the Nick of Time Foundation. She is an Associate Editor for the British Journal of Sports Medicine, and serves as a consultant to the NCAA and the Department of Defense. Her research interests include sudden cardiac death in athletes, the use of biologics such as platelet rich plasma in musculoskeletal medicine, concussion, and sickle cell trait in the athlete.

+ DR. BRIAN HAINLINE | Chief Medical Officer, NCAA

Brian Hainline, MD, is Chief Medical Officer of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). As the NCAA's first Chief Medical Officer, Brian oversees the NCAA Sport Science Institute, a national center of excellence whose mission is to promote and develop safety, excellence, and wellness in college student-athletes, and to foster life-long physical and mental development. The NCAA Sport Science Institute works collaboratively with member institutions and centers of excellence across the United States. For over 30 years, Brian has been actively involved in sports medicine, including serving as Chief Medical Officer of the US Open Tennis Championships and the United States Tennis Association. He is co-author of Drugs and the Athlete, and played a pivotal role in the rollout of drug testing and education worldwide. He is currently vice-chair of the American Academy of Neurology's Sports Neurology Section. Brian is Clinical Professor of Neurology at New York University School of Medicine and Indiana University School of Medicine.

+ DR. BYRON JOYNER | Vice Dean, University of Washington Medical School

Byron D. Joyner, MD, MPA is Professor at the University of Washington School of Medicine. He completed his urology residency at Massachusetts General Hospital after his graduation from Harvard Medical School. He completed a research fellowship at Children’s Hospital Boston and two years of training at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto in Pediatric Urology.

For four years, he served in the U.S. Army as Chief of Pediatric Urology at Madigan Army Medical Center. Dr. Joyner is Director of the Urology residency program and recently has been appointed as Associate Dean, Graduate Medical Education, both at the University of Washington School of Medicine. He trained in the Seattle Children’s teaching scholars program and received the University of Washington’s Julian S. Ansell Teaching Award for his new approaches to teaching residents about interpersonal and communication skills and professionalism. This past year he completed his MPA at the University of Washington. Currently he is recognized internationally for his innovative contributions to medical education, professionalism, and ethics.

+ DR. MARY KLOTMAN | Chair, Department of Medicine Duke University

Mary E. Klotman, MD is R. J. Reynolds Professor and chair of the Department of Medicine at Duke University School of Medicine. She earned her undergraduate (Zoology) and medical degrees, and then completed her internal medicine residency and a fellowship in Infectious Diseases in the Department of Medicine at Duke. She subsequently moved to the National Institutes of Health, where she was a member of the Public Health Service and trained and worked in the Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology under the direction of Robert C. Gallo MD.

Dr. Klotman joined the faculty at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York, where she was a tenured professor of medicine and microbiology and held the Irene and Dr. Arthur M. Fishberg Chair in Infectious Diseases and oversaw a translational research program in HIV pathogenesis. She also served as chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases for 13 years and co-director of Mount Sinai’s Global Health and Emerging Pathogens Institute. She returned to Duke in March 2010 to become chair of the Department of Medicine.

Her research interests are focused on the molecular pathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. Among many important contributions to this field, Dr. Klotman and her collaborators demonstrated that HIV resides in and evolves separately in kidney cells and infects these cells via direct contact with infected T-cells, critical steps in HIV-associated kidney disease. Her research group also has determined the role of soluble host factors involved in an innate immune response to HIV, including antimicrobial peptides that could be involved in sexual transmission of HIV. She has mentored a number of pre- and post-doctoral students in laboratory-based research in infectious diseases.

As chair of medicine, Dr. Klotman has focused on process improvement within the department to enhance efficiency of services, faculty development, and developing a department with a vision for the future for all three missions. This vision includes re-engineering education of trainees to practice in an environment where practice informatics drive quality improvement, building multidisciplinary research teams to address challenges, and moving the practice from a fee for service subspecialty practice to a multidisciplinary, integrated practice focused on population health. Dr. Klotman is a member of AAP Council and currently serves as an associate editor of JCI and Annual Reviews of Medicine. She was elected as a member of Institute of Medicine in October 2014, and was elected as APM President-Elect in February 2015.

+ DR. PAUL KLOTMAN | President, CEO and Executive Dean Baylor College of Medicine

Paul E. Klotman, MD began serving as president, CEO, and executive dean of Baylor College of Medicine in 2010. He received his BS degree in 1972 from the University of Michigan and his MD from Indiana University in 1976. He completed his medicine and nephrology training at Duke University Medical Center. He stayed at Duke as a faculty member, rising to the rank of associate professor of medicine before moving to the NIH in 1988 where he became chief of the Molecular Medicine Section in the Laboratory of Developmental Biology.

In 1993, he became chief of the Viral Pathogenesis Laboratory in the NIDR/NIH. In 1994, he moved to Mount Sinai School of Medicine as the Irene and Dr. Arthur M. Fishberg Professor of Medicine and the chief of the Division of Nephrology. In 2001, he was selected to be the chair of the Samuel Bronfman Department of Medicine of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. The BCM Board of Trustees named him as the school’s new president in 2010.

Dr. Klotman's research has been a blend of both basic and clinical research in molecular virology and AIDS pathogenesis. He developed the first small animal model of HIV associated nephropathy using transgenic techniques. He is the author of more than 200 publications and he has been a visiting professor and lecturer internationally in the field of HIV pathogenesis. He has been elected to both the American Society of Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians. He is on the editorial boards of journals both in the United States and in Europe and he has served on and chaired numerous study sections including those from the NIH, the American Heart Association, the National Kidney Foundation, and the VA research service.

In addition to his laboratory efforts, Dr. Klotman has been an active clinician, teacher, and mentor. Students from his laboratory have won prestigious scientific competitions. He has trained over 50 clinical fellows, postdoctoral fellows, and students in his laboratory since 1984 most of whom are independently funded. Six of his mentees are now chairs of medicine and four others lead major institutes or centers. He has been listed in both Castle Connolly and New York magazine as one of the region's Best Doctors and Mount Sinai nurses named him Physician of the Year. As the chair of medicine, he moved the Department of Medicine at Mount Sinai to a top-tier academic program by expanding the Faculty Practice, increasing basic and clinical research revenues, developing new community projects, and focusing on the educational mission. Dr. Klotman also serves on the scientific advisory boards of biotech, pharmaceutical, and health care companies, and serves on the board of several companies with interests in natural resources and conservation.

At Baylor College of Medicine, he oversees the only private health science university in the Greater Southwest, with research funding of over $400 million. The medical school is ranked as one of the top 20 for research by U.S. News & World Report, and was ranked No. 2 nationally for best medical schools for Hispanics by Hispanic Business magazine and No. 4 by StudentDoc, a leading online resource for medical students. The School of Allied Health Sciences is among the best 10 in the nation and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences is rated in the top five percent. In addition, the College is home to the first National School of Tropical Medicine in North America. The College is ranked first among all Texas colleges, universities, and medical schools in federal funding for research and development, and is ranked second in federally funded research expenditures by the National Science Foundation.

+ DR. CLIFFORD KO | Director, American College of Surgeons Quality Improvement Program

Clifford Y. Ko, MD, MS, MSHA, FACS is the Director of the Division of Research and Optimal Patient Care at the American College of Surgeons. He oversees all the quality improvement programs, including the Bariatric Surgery Accreditation Program, the Cancer Accreditation program, the Trauma Verification program, the Surgeon Specific Registry, the Pediatric Surgery Verification Program, and the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP). He also serves as the Director of ACS NSQIP, which recently was recognized with the Eisenberg Award from the National Quality Forum/Joint Commission.

Dr. Ko’s work focuses on surgical quality of care, including quality measurement, process improvement, and achieving high reliability in surgical care. He has served in advisory roles to national and international efforts for achieving higher quality and safety including the World Health Organization, the Institute of Medicine, the National Quality Forum amongst others. He has received millions of dollars in grant funding to study quality of care from sources that include the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American Cancer Society, the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Veterans Administration. He has published over 300 peer-reviewed manuscripts and has written more than 20 book chapters. He is frequently invited to speak nationally and internationally, and was recognized by Becker’s Hospital Review as one of the top 50 experts leading the field of patient safety.

Current national initiatives for Dr. Ko include overseeing the writing of the ACS Quality Manual, a data registry project to standardize ACS data automation/analysis/reporting, and development of a geriatric surgery quality program. Clinically, Dr. Ko is a double board-certified surgeon with a practice currently focusing on patients with colorectal cancer. At UCLA, he is the Robert and Kelly Day Professor of Surgery, has won the Faculty Teaching Award three times, and is recognized as one of the Best Doctors in America. He is also professor of health services at the UCLA School of Public Health.

Dr. Ko received his BA (Biology), MS (Biological/Medical Ethics), and MD from the University of Chicago. He also received a Masters of Science Degree (Health Services/Outcomes Research) from the University of California, Los Angeles during his time as a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Fellow at UCLA and RAND. Dr. Ko completed his General Surgery Residency at UCLA Medical Center, and obtained specialty training at the Lahey Clinic in Boston in Colon and Rectal Surgery.

+ DR. ROBERT KRASNER | Former Attending Physician to US Congress and Supreme Court

Robert C.J. Krasner, MD served as the Attending Physician to Congress where for ten years he was responsible for the worldwide care of the members of the United States Senate, House of Representatives, Supreme Court, and contingency planning for medical emergencies at the US Capitol, Joint Sessions of Congress, and Presidential Inaugurations. Dr. Krasner was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal for his “outstanding performance as physician, advisor, administrator, and confidant for the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches of government.”

Prior to Congress, Dr. Krasner served in Ethiopia helping to care for Emperor Haile Selassie and his family, at a submarine base in Sardinia, under three ambassadors at the American Embassy in London as clinician, as a tropical disease field and bench researcher in Panama and Indonesia, and as clinician, teacher, department head, and medical director at hospitals in California, and in Bethesda, Maryland.

Currently, Robert Krasner is Clinical Professor of Medicine at New York University School of Medicine and Adjunct Assistant Professor of Medicine at Cornell University Medical Center. He is Past President of the New York Occupational and Environmental Medicine Association, Past President of the Physicians Scientific Society, and a former Fellow of the American College of Physicians, the Academy of Medicine of Washington, DC, and the New York Academy of Medicine. From 2001 to 2003, Dr. Krasner served on the President’s Task Force to Improve Health Care Delivery for our Nation’s Veterans. As a consulting physician, Robert Krasner is experienced in health information gathering, analysis, and presentation, plus in advising governments, corporations, and individuals on health.

+ DR. DARIN PORTNOY | Past President, Doctors Without Borders US

Darin A. Portnoy, MD is an Associate Professor at the Albert Einstein School of Medicine, Faculty for the Residency program in Family and Social Medicine, and Attending Physician at Montefiore Medical Center in New York. He has a career-long commitment and extensive clinical experience in medical humanitarian aid. In July of 2015 he completed his term as the Vice President of the International Board of Doctors without Borders (Medecins Sans Frontieres, MSF) and he is also the Past-President of Doctors without Borders USA.

He joined MSF in 1997 as a field doctor and later field coordinator for tuberculosis treatment and control programs in Uzbekistan. In 1999, he ran cholera treatment and prevention programs in El Salvador, leaving for Georgia the following year where he coordinated emergency health care for Chechen refugees. Since that time, he has primarily worked throughout Africa including multiple projects in South Sudan and Darfur. He has worked in Nigeria, Liberia, and Ethiopia. In 2011 he worked with the organization in the island country of Bahrain. In addition to work with MSF, he serves on the Board of Directors of the Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative in the North American office and is on the Advisory Committee for the Health and Human Rights Division of Human Rights Watch where he has also worked in South African Prisons. Prior to the start of his international work, he worked in clinics and hospitals in rural Colorado, and before that for many years with the Navajo Indians on the eastern edge of the reservation in New Mexico.

Dr. Portnoy received his MD and MPH from the Tulane University School of Medicine and the Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine. He completed his residency in Family Medicine at the University Of Texas Southwestern School Of Medicine, in John Peter Smith Hospital.

+ DR. ROBERT ROBBINS | President, University of Arizona

Robert C. Robbins, MD is the President of The University of Arizona and is an internationally recognized cardiac surgeon focused on acquired cardiac diseases with a special expertise in the surgical treatment of congestive heart failure. His research work includes the investigation of stem cells for cardiac regeneration, cardiac transplant allograft vasculopathy, bioengineered blood vessels, and automated vascular anastomotic devices.

A prolific writer, Dr. Robbins has served as guest editor of the Circulation Surgical Supplement and published more than 292 peer-reviewed articles during his career. Prior to TMC, he was professor and chairman of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Stanford University School of Medicine, director of the Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, president of the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation, president of the Bay Area Society of Thoracic Surgeons, chair of the American Heart Association Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia Council, and more. Robbins currently sits on the advisory board of the Ronald McDonald House in Houston and on the board of directors for TMC, the Greater Houston Partnership, the Greater Houston Convention and Visitors Bureau, Houston Academy of Medicine, TMC Library, Houston Technology Center, and the Friends of Houston Academy of Medicine.

He earned his bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Millsaps College in 1979 and a medical degree from the University of Mississippi in 1983. He completed his general surgical training at the University of Mississippi in 1989 and his cardiothoracic training at Stanford in 1992. Dr. Robbins completed post-doctoral research at Columbia University and the National Institutes of Health, and congenital heart surgical fellowships at Emory and Royal Children’s Hospital.

+ DR. EDWARD SHORTLIFFE | Leading MD PhD Pioneer of Biomedical Informatics

Edward (Ted) H. Shortliffe, MD, PhD, MACP, FACMI is Professor and Senior Advisor to the Executive Vice Provost and Dean for the College of Health Solutions at Arizona State. Based for much of the year in New York City, he is a Scholar in Residence at the New York Academy of Medicine and holds academic positions as Adjunct Professor of Biomedical Informatics at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons and as Adjunct Professor of Public Health (Quality and Medical Informatics) at Weill Cornell Medical College. After receiving an AB in Applied Mathematics from Harvard College in 1970, he attended Stanford University, where he earned a PhD in Medical Information Sciences in 1975 and an MD in 1976.

During the early 1970s, he was principal developer of the medical expert system known as MYCIN. After a pause for internal medicine house-staff training at Massachusetts General Hospital and Stanford Hospital between 1976 and 1979, he joined the Stanford internal medicine faculty where he served as Chief of General Internal Medicine, Associate Chair of Medicine for Primary Care, and was director of an active research program in clinical information systems and decision support.

Dr. Shortliffe moved from Stanford to Columbia in 2000 when he was appointed Professor and Chair of the Department of Biomedical Informatics as well as Professor of Medicine and of Computer Science. He was subsequently appointed the Rolf A. Scholdager Professor of Biomedical Informatics and he served a variety of roles in both New York-Presbyterian Hospital and the office of the Executive Vice President and Dean of Columbia University Medical Center. After being recruited to Phoenix, AZ, to serve as founding Dean of the University Of Arizona College Of Medicine (Phoenix Campus), he served three years as President and CEO of AMIA (American Medical Informatics Association). Returning to New York City in 2012, he now holds positions as Adjunct Professor of Biomedical Informatics at Columbia, Adjunct Professor of Public Health (Quality and Medical Informatics) at Weill Cornell Medical College, Professor of Biomedical Informatics at Arizona State University, and Scholar in Residence at the New York Academy of Medicine. He continues to be closely involved with medical education and biomedical informatics graduate training. His research interests include the broad range of issues related to integrated decision-support systems, their effective implementation, and the role of the Internet in health care.

Dr. Shortliffe is an elected member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, and the American Clinical and Climatological Association. He has also been elected to fellowship in the American College of Medical Informatics and the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. He is a Master of the American College of Physicians (ACP), was a member of that organization’s Board of Regents from 1996-2002, and is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Biomedical Informatics. In the early 1980s, he was the recipient of a research career development award from the National Library of Medicine. In addition, he received the Grace Murray Hopper Award of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1976, the Morris F. Collen Award of the American College of Medical Informatics in 2006, and has been a Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Faculty Scholar in General Internal Medicine. Dr. Shortliffe has authored more than 300 articles and books in the fields of biomedical computing and artificial intelligence, including a major textbook (Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in Health Care and Biomedicine, with J.J. Cimino, New York: Springer, 4th edition, 2013).

+ DR. IDA SIM | Professor, Co-director of Biomedical Informatics UCSF, Co-founder of Open mHealth

Ida Sim, MD, PhD is a primary care physician, informatics researcher, and entrepreneur. She is a Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, where she co-directs Biomedical Informatics at UCSF's Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute. Her current research focuses on the use of mobile apps and sensors to improve health and manage disease for populations and individuals, and to make clinical research faster and less expensive. She is a co-founder of Open mHealth, a non-profit organization that is breaking down barriers to mobile health app and data integration through an open software architecture. Dr. Sim is also a co-investigator and Consortium Core Lead with the Mobile Data to Knowledge NIH Center of Excellence. Dr. Sim received her MD and PhD from Stanford University.

In 2005, Dr. Sim was the founding Project Coordinator of the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, where she led the establishment of the first global policy on clinical trial registration and defined the common 20-item Trial Registration Data Set that all registers worldwide adhere to. She served on the Institute of Medicine's committee on Strategies of Responsible Sharing of Clinical Trial Data and is now the technical lead of the MRCT Framework for Data Sharing international effort to build a single global portal for sharing individual participant-level data from clinical trials.

Dr. Sim has served on multiple advisory committees on health information infrastructure for clinical care and research, including committees of the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. She is a recipient of the United States Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), a Fellow of the American College of Medical Informatics, and a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation.

+ DR. TADATAKA YAMADA | Past President Gates Foundation Global Health, Past Physician-in-Chief University of Michigan

Tadataka (Tachi) Yamada, MD is a Venture Partner at Frazier Healthcare Partners. He was previously Executive Vice-President, Chief Medical & Scientific Officer and a Board Member of Takeda Pharmaceuticals. He joined Takeda after serving as President of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Global Health Program where he managed $9 billion in programs directed at addressing major health challenges of the developing world. Previously, he had served as Chairman, Research and Development and a Member of the Board of GlaxoSmithKline and before that as Chair of the Department of Internal Medicine and Physician-in-Chief at the University of Michigan Medical Center.

Dr. Yamada holds a bachelor's degree in history from Stanford University and obtained his MD from New York University School of Medicine. In recognition of his contributions to medicine and science he has been elected to membership in the National Academy of Medicine (US), the Academy of Medical Sciences (UK) and the National Academy of Medicine (Mexico) and he has received an honorary appointment as Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (KBE). He is a Past-President of the Association of American Physicians and of the American Gastroenterological Association and he has served as a member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. He is currently a member of the National Academy of Medicine and serves on the Board of Directors of the Clinton Health Access Initiative.